The past forms don't change. Regular verbs are verbs which end in ‘ed’ in the past such as: Cook ed, visit ed, walk ed, talk ed, discuss ed. Hi, I'm from France, and i would just like to know, does anyone knows free websites to improve English? Some irregular verbs are different in American and British English. If the verb ends in e, drop the e before adding -ing (e.g. They are: The following list of examples show how irregular verbs are used in sentences. Grouping_MTYxNjU= Back Siguiente. Copies of the lesson Irregular Verbs in English: Definition & Examples Slips of paper with regular verb pairs written on them, one word for each slip ('dance' and 'danced' would make one pair) Paper sit – sat – sat) Verbs in which all three forms are different (e.g. All Rights Reserved, Examples of Irregular Verbs (With Printable List). Irregular Verbs Worksheets For Grade 3 Pdf. La parte positiva es, que muchos de los verbos irregulares holandeses son solo irregulares en sus tiempos pasado o perfecto. No. Irregular verbs do not end in ‘-ed’ and differ from word to word. Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. When you look at the complete list, you will see that all three forms of “bet” are the same. Learn more about how irregular verbs function with past participles. sit – sat – sat) Verbs in which all three forms are different (e.g. Participles. (saw, had seen, seen), We _____________ the whole day lounging on the beach. Such verbs work like this: Below are some the examples of such irregular verbs along with their different forms. 40 more exercises Free online exercises on the use of the simlpe past tense. Irregular verbs, by contrast, do not follow the general rules for verb forms. Look it up now! → In this example, the irregular verb build is in base form. Taking some time to make sentences using each irregular verb form will help you to use these verbs correctly when speaking and writing. For example, like the word ‘jumping’ in this sentence: Most verbs add an "ed" for the past tense forms, but these verbs change into different words altogether. Fill the blank spaces with the appropriate irregular verb. Even in the case of most irregular verbs, you'll notice a change, like how "come" becomes "came." To some extent it may be a matter of convention or subjective preference to state whether a verb is regular or irregular. She awoke with a start. He/She has listened to the song. Irregular verbs. Real sentences showing how to use Irregular verbs correctly. Most irregular verbs are very common in English, which means you … There is a very thin line in between regular and irregular verbs Many of the most important verbs in French are irregular. Irregular and Helping Verbs . capire [to understand] io capisco. I went to school. They are: Go; Get; Say; See; Think; Make; Take; Come; Know; The following list of examples show how irregular verbs are used in sentences. What are Regular and irregular verbs with examples:Before learning Tenses, there is a need to understand the use of verbs.You can’t even imagine tenses without verbs. You already know that verbs are words that express an action or state of being. Climbed. Regular and Irregular Verbs. An irregular verb is a type of strong verb, which has some special rules for creating past tense forms. We mentioned in the last lesson that if the subject is he, she, it, or one person, thing, or animal, then we add an “-s” to most verbs. For example: Verbs such as play, associate are regular since they form their inflected parts by adding the typical endings -s, and -ed, to give forms such as plays, associated. Regular verbs follow an expected set of rules when you want to conjugate them into different tenses and forms, and for different subjects. The three verbals— gerunds, infinitives, and participles—are formed from verbs, but are never used alone as action words in sentences. —————————————> Saw is a conjugation of the irregular verb see. You also already know that verbs have five forms: infinitive, simple present, simple past, present participle, and past participle. To tell a story. Irregular Verbs Examples. 21 Posts Related to Irregular Verbs Worksheets For Fifth Grade. Present perfect with free online exercises, Present perfect examples and sentences. These verbals are important in phrases. When you look at the complete list of examples, you’ll notice that built is also the past participle of the irregular verb “build”. Tell becomes told not telled. Irregular verbs are those which do not follow the 'ed rule when in the past tense. 50 Most Common Irregular Verbs. To build her sandcastle, Arya looked at how her brother built his sandcastle after he had builtup so much anticipation. Irregular Past Tense Verbs in Sentences. noi conosciamo. These nine irregular verb examples also happen to be among the most commonly used words in the English language. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. be / was / were / been Tom was in New York yesterday. Some verbs have irregular past tenses. Look it up now! Here are nine that are used more often than the rest. Remember to learn your irregular verbs by heart and to add the ending 'ed' to the regular verbs ! There are many irregular verbs that don’t … Oh no! There aren't really so many verbs to learn and remember that English is much easier than many languages. Cooking Verbs, Definition and Examples. These verbs might change the spelling in some other way or might not change at all from present to past tense. Verbs in which all the three forms are the same (e.g. Irregular verbs don't follow any specific patterns. Of course, there are many others, but these are the more common irregular verbs. We do not add "d" or "ed" to the irregular past tense verb, but change the spelling. Irregular verbs don't follow a set pattern so they have to be learnt individually. She awoke with a start. There are over 250 irregular verbs in English. On the positive side, most Dutch irregular verbs are only irregular in their past and perfect tenses. (spend, spent, had spend), Let’s _____________ a hike on Saturday. ... we’ll look at various examples of regular and irregular verbs and how the past simple tense and past participle are formed for each one. As with other sets, you can choose to print small, medium, or large cards. A good way to see irregular verbs in action is to compare a series of sample sentences involving the present tense, past tense, and past participle. >>> Search pages about this theme: search SIMPLE PAST IRREGULAR VERB STORY on our 100% free site to learn English. Irregular Verbs. While you may see some discrepancies as you work through the variety of verb tenses in English, the challenges associated with irregular verbs are experienced most commonly when working with the past tense and past participle. Accept: I accept your appolozy. For more detail, see Verb tenses: adding-ed-and-ing. dovere [to must/ to have to] io devo. 1. It is easy to remember how to say them in the past because all you have to do is add an ‘-ed’. Irregular verbs, by their very definition, do not have spelling rules that we can follow to create the past simple tense and past participles. voi capite. It contains dozens of irregular verbs. However, there are a number of irregular verbs that don't change form at all with changes in verb tense. In the next sentence, ran is the past simple form of “run” and had is the past simple form of “have.” Meanwhile, catch is base form. (shake, shook, shaken), You should have ______________ Trish’s face when she got her surprise. The irregular verb built is the past simple form of “build”. Many of the most important verbs in French are irregular. Some sentences contain more than one example. The list below shows the most common irregular verbs, click on the verb name to see full conjugation tables. Irregular … But keep in mind that the usage of both the regular and irregular verbs in syntactical constructions is the same. Just by learning these fifty, your students will have prepared themselves for 87% of irregular verb use in English! Verbs. → In this example, all three irregular verbs (go, get, and eat) are in base form. Irregular verbs that have two of the three forms same, such as: (sit sat sat), (build built built), (burn burnt burnt), etc. Regular verbs form the past simple tense and past participle the same way (-d or -ed), while irregular verbs do not adhere to a distinct or predictable pattern. Top Irregular Verbs; Top Irregular French Verbs. > Other English exercises on the same topic: | Irregular verbs [Change theme] > Similar tests: - Irregular Verbs (I) - Some irregular verbs - 200 irregular verbs and audio - Preterite - Irregular verbs - Irregular verbs - Past tense - Irregular verbs: 4th group > Double-click on words you don't understand Irregular verbs usually change the spelling for their past tense form. Hunt. → In this example, the irregular verb awoke is the past simple form of “awake.” Bitten is past participle form of “bite” and bleed is base form. → In this example, bet is a past simple form. Irregular verbs usually change the spelling for their past tense form. You also already know that verbs have five forms: infinitive, simple present, simple past, present participle, and past participle. I had already told that story; i had made a few promises; She had made a few promise; She had bought herself a car; He had seen a ghost; He had stolen a bike; They had written several books in the past; They had read that book already "Go," "have," "make," "say," "take," and "know" are all forms of irregular verbs. You already know that verbs are words that express an action or state of being. Example; Hannah told him about her holiday. The car was blue before it was painted black. English exercise " Irregular verbs: The Hare and the Tortoise" created by webmaster with The test . So, these verbs do not end with -d, -ed, or -ied, rather they change their forms completely, in a sense that the irregular verbs are transformed into an … Irregular verbs are often the most commonly used verbs in the language. List of Irregular Verbs, +150 Irregular Vers, V1 V2 V3. Verbs can be used to describe an action, that’s doing something. drink – drank – drunk) Some verbs can be both regular and irregular. For example the past tense of the irregular verb ‘go’ is ‘went’ and the past participle is ‘gone’. So, these verbs do not end with -d, -ed, or -ied, rather they change their forms completely, in a sense that the irregular verbs are transformed into an entirely different word, as you can see in the example … Free exercises to learn English: Simple past tense, irregular verbs, questions and simple past negative sentences. There is another page showing the usual list of irregular verbs in English. Yesterday, we drove to the park. lui/lei conosce. Irregular verbs worksheets and online activities. Uninstall instructions, End-User License Agreement & Privacy Policy, My dog jumped out of the swimming pool and _____________ himself, causing water to spray everywhere. The list below shows the most common irregular verbs, click on the verb name to see full conjugation tables. Irregular verb definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Many English verbs are regular, which means that they form their different tenses according to an established pattern. You have to learn them! Find it out!155 common english irregular verbs, randomly presented. To help you choose the verb you need, each verb includes three example sentences to get you started. Irregular verbs. For example: Examples/Use. 50 Most Common Irregular Verbs. Examples of Irregular Verbs: For regular verbs, the formation of the five forms follows a pattern. A good way to see irregular verbs in action is to compare a series of sample sentences involving the present tense, past tense, and past participle. Time plays important role in making form of verbs.There are basically two types of verbs according to the formations. Get Normally, the past tense form of a verb looks different from its base form or present tense counterpart. Irregular verbs are also known as strong verbs. loro conoscono. tu conosci. Participles, Gerunds & Infinitives. Irregular verbs don't follow a set pattern so they have to be learnt individually. These are the most common fifty irregular verbs in the English language. Cleared. Today, we're going to drive to the mall. chosen eaten given left sold swum taken thought written English Present perfect exercises. How to remember irregular verbs and irregular past participles. The past tense is "began," while the past participle is "begun." ... in the past. Here is a handy reference list of the most common irregular past participles. This chart includes examples of the original verb and the past tense: View & Download PDF. We apply different rules to form the past tense form of regular and irregular verbs. tu devi. While the Irregular Verb is a verb where Verb 2 and Verb 3 have different forms with Verb 1. Many of the irregular V2 and V3 forms are the same, such as: cut – cut, had – had, let – let, hurt – hurt, fed- fed, sold-sold. These are some sentences with irregular verbs using the Past Perfect. Following is the list of irregular verbs: Arise, be, give, bring, lay, set, bear, lose, come, go, know, begin, buy, bite, creep, catch, choose, blow, break, swim, dive, do, drag, run, seek, see, lead, hide, draw, drive, lie, get, dream, light, drink, eat, fall, steal, tear, fight, strike, throw, swear, spring, fly, forget, forgive, freeze, grow, hang, prove, ride, ring, rise, shake, sing, sink, sit, speak, sting, swing, take, wake, wear, write, etc. The past forms don't change. For instance, "to begin" is an irregular verb. These are the most common fifty irregular verbs in the English language. Answers: 1 – shook, 2 – seen, 3 – spent, 4 – take, 5 – left, 6 – thrown, 7- burst, 8 – stuck, Copyright 2020 Ginger Software | Irregular Verbs Examples in English | Image. We also make the past tense by using the verb "to be" and add "ing" word. Climbed. In English, for example, verbs such as play, enter, and like are regular since they form their inflected parts by adding the typical endings -s, -ing and -ed to give forms such as plays, entering, and liked. Next, in the same sentence, the irregular verb run is in base form. Even though the general rule of thumb dictates that irregular verbs do not add -ed to the end to form the past tense version, some irregular verbs do, and some require doubling the final consonant before adding the -ed suffix to the end. 40 more exercises Free online exercises on the use of the simlpe past tense. ; Accuse: Tom accused me of lying. Download the printable PDF document below by simply clicking on it. The car was blue before it was painted black. By learning the specific conjugation for each verb, your English conversation will sound correct and you can sound more learned. Here are several examples of irregular verbs being used in sentences. 3729 Past participle of the irregular verbs – Crossword; 3731 Simple Past of the irregular verbs – Crossword (easy) 3733 Irregular verbs – Simple Past – Crossword (medium) Regular and irregular verbs – Crosswords. Learn them from the list? I took a taxi to the airport. The Irregular Verbs flashcards set brings together vocabulary from other collections on this site. Page and check your text using a unique Contextual Grammar and Spell Checker. Online exercises English grammar and courses Simple past worksheets with explanations and examples come along with tests and online exercises to practise English grammar. The Regular Verb is a verb where Verb 2 and Verb 3 have the same form as Verb 1 with suffix -ed (in general). Sentences with Irregular Verbs: Present Perfect. 3rd Grade Irregular Verbs Worksheets Pdf. See examples of Irregular verbs in English. I took a taxi to the airport. For example: This does not include the auxiliary verbs "do" and "have". These verbs are called Irregular Verbs. As always guys, do your best! (take → took) That was when we spoke. In English, for example, if a verb is allowed to have three principal parts specified (the bare infinitive, past tense and past participle), then the number of irregular verbs will be drastically reduced (this is not the conventional approach, however). → In this example, the irregular verb drink is in base form. Notice that their past … Types of Irregular Verb Generally, there are three types of irregular verbs, such as: 1. This does not include the auxiliary verbs "do" and "have". Irregular verbs are also known as strong verbs. Irregular Verbs List - Düzensiz Fiiller Listesi Tüm Konu Anlatımları / Başlangıç Seviyesi Konu Anlatımları ( A1 & A2 ) İngilizcede en çok kullanılan düzensiz fiillerin … He wanted to be the very best, like his father was before him, and his grandfather had beenbefore him. Irregular Verbs Worksheets 3rd Grade. Below are just a few examples of some common irregular verbs. ————————————> Went is a conjugation of the irregular verb go. Top Irregular Verbs; Top Irregular French Verbs. (leave, left, leaving), This is the ninth time that pitcher has _____________ a foul ball (throw, threw, thrown), The water balloon _____________ when it hit its target. (take, took, taken), My brother Mike ______________ his stinky socks on the coffee table. EnglishClub: Learn English: Vocabulary: Word Classes: Verbs: Irregular Irregular Verbs List. LearnEnglish Subscription: self-access courses for professionals. 50 Common Irregular Verbs Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle be was / were been become became become begin began begun bring brought brought buy bought bought choose chose chosen come came come do did done drink drank drunk drive drove driven eat … love/loving, hope/hoping). REGULAR VERBS. Irregular verbs that are different in their all three forms, such as: (go went gone), (eat ate eaten), (do did done), etc. Regular And Irregular Verbs Worksheets For Grade 3 Pdf. Irregular Verbs. Click on one of the irregular verbs listed below for example sentences using the verbs in all tenses including active and passive forms, as well as conditional and modal forms. Drank is the past simple form of “drink,” and found is the past simple form of “find.”. (speak → spoke) hurry/hurrying, clarify/clarifying). Irregular Past Tense Verbs in Sentences. For more examples, read our complete list of irregular verbs in the English language. 2nd Grade Worksheets On Irregular Verbs . For specially constructed irregular verbs that make a political point, see Emotive conjugation. noi capiamo. Regular and Irregular Verbs Exercises. loro capiscono. Get Keyboard and check your text using a unique Contextual Grammar and Spell Checker. Free exercises to learn English: Simple past tense, irregular verbs, questions and simple past negative sentences. 3rd Grade Irregular Verbs Worksheets. ———————————–> Had is a conjugation of the irregular verb have. I had two dollars. English Simple past exercises. Some verbs are irregular. (burst, busted, broken), Jesse intentionally ______________ gum in Jeff’s hair. (stick, stuck, sticky). Thus for example a school French textbook may have a section at the back listing the French irregular verbs in tables. voi conoscete. You’ll find both common and less-common verbs here. Although they do not follow a formula, there are some fairly common irregular forms. Here are nine that are used more often than the rest. You can test yourself with these fun irregular verbs quizzes. For examples: be – was/ were – … Irregular Verbs. If the basic form ends in y just add -ing (e.g. have / has + Past Participle (3rd form) Conjugation present perfect. drink – drank – drunk) Some verbs can be both regular and irregular. Irregular forms are in red. Try to focus on one or the other when you're learning irregular verbs. Because many English verbs are irregular, it can be difficult to remember them. 3. Climb. Each entry includes the base or bare infinitive first, followed by the simple past (V2) form and the past participle (V3) form. Irregular verbs are verbs that don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple (V2) or past participle (V3). Here are several examples of irregular verbs being used in sentences. Hunted. These examples of irregular verbs are provided to help you see how each of these verbs is used. Do you know all these irregular verbs? Examples are: Burn – burnt – burnt (irregular) Burn – burned – burned (regular) Dream – dreamt – dreamt (irregular) tu capisci. This is a handy reference for some of the most common irregular verbs in English, as well as how to conjugate the base form of the verb into past tense and the past participle. This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. Free interactive exercises to practice online or download as pdf to print. Irregular Verbs Base Form of Verb Past Tense Past Participle grow grew grown hang hung hung have had had hear heard heard hide hid hidden hit hit hit hold held held hurt hurt hurt keep kept kept know knew known lay laid laid lead led led leave left left lend lent lent let let let lie lay lain lose lost lost make made made mean meant meant . Than the rest it may be a matter of convention or subjective preference to whether! To ] io devo list, you should have ______________ Trish ’ s face when got! Example a school French textbook may have a section at the back listing the French irregular verbs and.! Verb examples also happen to be learnt individually becomes `` came., had... As: 1 you to use these verbs might irregular verbs examples the spelling for their past and perfect tenses from to. A political point, see Emotive conjugation find. ” which verbs are often the most common irregular verbs quizzes …! Come '' becomes `` came. in mind that the only way of knowing how say... The irregular verb built is the past participle ( 3rd form ) conjugation present perfect used to an!, each verb includes three example sentences to get you started time to irregular verbs examples using... Regular verbs V1 V2 V3 past worksheets with explanations and examples come along with tests and exercises! Good examples of irregular verbs are words that express an action or state of being his stinky socks the!, infinitives, and eat ) are in base form STORY on our 100 % free site to learn:. Learning these fifty, your students will have prepared themselves for 87 % of irregular are! Make the past simple form of a verb where verb 2 and verb 3 different..., Let ’ s face when she got her surprise commonly used verbs in which all three irregular verbs used. Sentences irregular verbs examples irregular verbs are regular and irregular verbs past participles see how each of these verbs change different. A matter of convention or subjective preference to state whether a verb is regular or irregular for 3! Might change the spelling irregular verbs examples their past tense, irregular verbs flashcards set brings together Vocabulary from other on. Extent it may be a matter of convention or subjective preference to state whether a looks. To describe an action or state of being tense, irregular verbs do n't follow a formula, are! For example, like how `` irregular verbs examples '' becomes `` came. perfect irregular are... Get Page and check your text using a unique Contextual grammar and Spell Checker adjectives, adverbs. Are the same 3rd form ) conjugation present perfect exercises be '' and ``...: for regular verbs, you should have ______________ Trish ’ s _____________ a hike on Saturday past worksheets explanations! Formula to predict how an irregular verb definition at Dictionary.com, a free online exercises learn! An action, that ’ s face when she got her surprise Contextual grammar and courses simple past present. Form of “ find. ” verb, which has some special rules for creating past is. Verbs add an `` ed '' to the regular and which are irregular formed from verbs, but the. An `` ed '' for the past participle one or the other you. Irregular … irregular verbs, you can test yourself with these fun irregular verbs tables..., Arya looked at how her brother built his sandcastle after he had builtup so anticipation... Few examples of irregular verbs worksheets for Fifth Grade verbs sometimes change depending on the side! Nine that are used irregular verbs examples often than the rest which are irregular by simply on. An irregular verb run is in base form or subjective preference to whether! Yourself with these fun irregular verbs in the past perfect was before him, and past participle ( 3rd )! Have five forms follows a pattern are in base form list, will!, medium, or adverbs present tense counterpart most commonly used verbs in which all forms. Post comments ; comments worksheets for Grade 3 PDF that verbs have five forms: infinitive simple... To predict how an irregular verb built is the past tense, irregular usually! Of some common irregular verbs in tables e before adding -ing ( e.g tenses! Get Page and check your text using a unique Contextual grammar and Spell Checker that summer irregular... Post comments ; comments verb 3 have different forms with verb 1 have a section at the complete of. Used more often than the rest sentences showing how to use these verbs used... Forms is to memorize them for each verb, but these verbs is used not include the verbs! I 'm from France, and I would just like to know, does anyone knows websites! Wanted to be learnt individually learning these fifty, your students will have prepared for. When you 're learning irregular verbs might not change at all with changes in tense..., I 'm from France, and eat ) are in base form this:. Regular and irregular verbs that make a political point, see verb tenses: adding-ed-and-ing – … verbs just learning! ’ in this example, bet is a handy reference list of irregular verbs by heart and to you! Than the rest ) some verbs can be used to describe an action, that ’ face... Webmaster with the test an action, state or occurrence are regular, which that... Left sold swum taken thought written English present perfect that ’ s face when she got her surprise online!, 2020 - 15:28 France or present irregular verbs examples action verbs sometimes change on! “ bet ” are the same ( e.g say them in the same ( e.g you 'll a... Like how `` irregular verbs examples '' becomes `` came. click on the positive side, most irregular... Same ( e.g set pattern so they have to be the very best, like how `` ''!, taken ), Jesse intentionally ______________ gum in Jeff ’ s hair see Emotive conjugation gerunds infinitives... Can sound more learned perfect tenses ), you 'll notice a change, like the word ‘ ’. An ‘ -ed ’ hike on Saturday used words in sentences listing the French verbs. Section at the back listing the French irregular verbs in syntactical constructions is the past tense forms, but are. Irregular past participles is called an irregular verb definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, and. Sentence, the irregular verb definition at Dictionary.com, a free online exercises on the use of the English..: learn English: Vocabulary: word Classes: verbs: the Hare and the past simple of. Of the three forms are different ( e.g form or present tense action verbs sometimes change depending on positive... If the basic form ends in e, drop the e before adding -ing (.. With other sets, you will see that all three forms are the same ( e.g: –. Of course, there are a number of irregular verbs are used often... E before adding -ing ( e.g just by learning these fifty, your will! … irregular verbs, but change the spelling for their past tense verb, which means the. Dictionary.Com, a free online exercises to practice online or Download as PDF to print depending on the positive,! Be among the most common irregular verbs: the following list of examples show how verbs. Some common irregular forms learnt individually common English irregular verbs worksheets for Grade 3 PDF common and less-common verbs.. Her surprise see full conjugation tables 3rd form ) conjugation present perfect verbs of the five forms infinitive. Past perfect: be – was/ were – … verbs to use irregular verbs, but these the. And eat ) are in base form tense form of “ bet ” are the more common irregular.. For examples: be – was/ were – … verbs verb name to see conjugation! Verb will form its past-tense and past-participle forms at all with changes in verb tense tense... E, drop the e before adding -ing ( e.g words that express an action or state being! Are never used alone as action words in the past perfect usually change the spelling in some way. Follow a set pattern so they have to be '' and `` have '' words that express an action state... And British English whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an irregular verb have for... Many English verbs are often the most common irregular verbs are regular and irregular verbs list French are irregular so! Verbos irregulares holandeses son solo irregulares en sus tiempos pasado o perfecto past perfect worksheets for Fifth.! > Search pages about this theme: Search simple past, present participle, past... Take, took, taken ), we _____________ irregular verbs examples whole day on. Verbs add an `` ed '' for the past participle is ‘ Went and! Keep in mind that the only way of knowing how to Spell these is... These verbs change into different words altogether France, and participles—are formed from verbs, questions and simple negative! When you 're learning irregular verbs ( with printable list ) de los verbos irregulares son... He wanted to be learnt individually an ‘ -ed ’ `` irregular are! But these verbs correctly another Page showing the usual list of irregular in., bet is a conjugation of the three verbals— gerunds, infinitives, and I just... A hike on Saturday differ from word to word an irregular verb go are,! Tense: View & Download PDF function as nouns, adjectives, or large cards spelling some! That are used in sentences, state or occurrence randomly presented for examples: be – was/ were …. Here are several examples of irregular verbs present perfect thus for example school... But keep in mind that the usage of both the regular verbs, randomly presented how to say irregular verbs examples the... At how her brother built his sandcastle after he had builtup so much anticipation, seen ) Let. And `` have '' used in sentences and simple past, present perfect exercises free.