Last Updated on Friday, 02 October 2020 04:00 Recommendations: Research Divisions: CRI Plans & Reports for 2015-2020 Coconut is an important crop for poor people, supporting their livelihoods and the sustainability of their environment. We found a striking absence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type-2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Diseases of Mulberry 146-148 19. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 7 Reasons Coconut Oil is a Toiletry Essential, No public clipboards found for this slide. Introduction • Coconut oil comes from the meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Diseases of Chrysanthemum 165-167 24. Coconut root (wilt) is a non-lethal debilitating disease and the affected palms survive for a long period giving a reasonably good yield. Some of the more common coconut tree disease issues include fungal or bacterial problems. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Mean percent disease incidence of coconut from 2008 –2013 S. No District Number of villages surveyed Mean percent disease incidence from 2008 to 2013 Basal stem rot Stem bleeding Bud rot Grey leaf spot 1 East Godavari 57 13.82 3.49 1.93 Traces 2 West Godavari 15 11.42 4.94 2.12 Traces Botryosphaeria disrupta Epicoccum nigrum Lecture 6.Diseases of Guava . Bile from the gallbladder is needed to digest long chain fatty acids. Slideshow search results for alzheimers disease Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Today, it is a common visual of dreamy relaxation and increasingly, a symbol of health. Can also increase the risk for stroke. The stem is smooth, light gray in color and has prominent leaf scars. Identification of Common Coconut Tree Disease. Molecular detection of 16Sr XI group Phytoplasma associated with Root (Wilt) Disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in India. Diseases of Coconut and Oil palm 138-145 18. Lecture 2.Diseases of Mango. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Replacing all healthful fats with coconut oil is not prudent since coconut oil does not provide any essential fatty acids.Will receive benefits from the other healthful components in coconut oil such as vitamin E, provitamin A, polyphenols and phytosterols.American Heart Association recommends that only 7% of total daily calories come from saturated fat. Primary"source"of"fatin"the"diets"of" would like to know about Potato Diseases and Pests, Symptoms, Control Methods? Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD Affects hormone release from intestines differently than LCFA’sA certain from this group fatty acid has been identified to Inhibit fungal, bacterial and virus growth and has been used in test to inhibit many viruses. Ganoderma zonatum, Alternaria sp. Cochliobolus lunatus Phytophthora nicotianae Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease, lethal yellowing. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Health education and promotion HSC 122Lecturer :Nrs Afesha Marshall ... can be achieved by a good selection of fruits and vegetables especially bananas,tomatoes and oranges as well as coconut water. Coconut is the fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).It’s used for its water, milk, oil, and tasty meat. Rhizoctonia solani, Ceratocystis paradoxa (Thielaviopsis paradoxa, anamorph), Ganoderma orbiforme Pythium spp. Long chain fatty acids have to become part of protein particles and travel in the bloodstream to be take up by cells and the liver and are used for energy or stored in the fatty deposits. Coconut trees are prone to some diseases. It is a source of materials for food, drink and shelter. Nutrition information on coconut oil and its effect on health. Fungal pathogens can cause bud rot, which is diagnosed by the appearance of black lesions on young fronds and leaves. BeriBeri and Heart Disease Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome. COURSE OUTLINE: Disease of Horticultural Crops & Their Management. It is also added to recipes of Southeast Asian and Thai cuisines. Molecular detection of 16Sr XI group Phytoplasma associated with Root (Wilt) Disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in India. You can change your ad preferences anytime. SlideShare Descubrir Buscar T ... Heart disease 1. They don’t normally exist in foods other than milk and milk products due to fermentation and in coconut and palm kernel oil;. Melanconium sp. You replace vegetable oils (soy, corn, canola, olive) with coconut oil?Coconut oil has a high percent of saturated fatty acids, but because they are medium chain, not long chain, they are not necessarily bad for your heart. Macrophoma sp. Are you growing potatoes on large scale? ii. 1. 17. This may be related both to regular physical activity and an ‘ancestral-like’ food pattern largely based on starchy root vegetables, fruit, fish and coconut. B vitamin deficiency contributes to heart disease. the read the following. Phytophthora katsurae Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine which affects gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) from the mouth to the anus. Few of them are very harmful, and few slowly affect the tree by gradually reducing overall yield. Coconut meat is the white flesh inside a coconut. Think coconut trees and immediately warm trade winds, blues skies, and gorgeous sandy beaches come to mind, or at least to my mind. Plant disease 94:636, This page was last edited on 15 March 2020, at 17:03. 2010. One recently selected cultivar, the 'Maypan', has been bred for resistance to this disease. Pellicularia filamentosa, Common Names of Diseases, The American Phytopathological Society, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_coconut_palm_diseases&oldid=945701358, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Manimekalai, R. Soumya, V.P., Sathish Kumar, R., Selvarajan, R., Krishna Reddy, M., Sasikala, George V Thomas., Rajeev M and Baranwal, V.K. What is the difference between coconut oil and other vegetable oils? Edible"oil"extracted"from"matured" coconuts"harvested"from"the"coconut palm"(Cocos"nucifera).! Glomerella cingulata (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anamorph), Ceratocystis paradoxa (Chalara paradoxa, anamorph), Ceratocystis paradoxa (Chalara paradoxa, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, anamorphs), Fusarium solani Phytophthora spp. It is also used to increase the energy intake in cystic fibrosis patients. LSU AgCenter IV Chapter IV COCONUT PRODUCTION 42-60 4.1 Cultivation of mixed crop 42 4.2 Cultivation of intercrop 43 4.3 Coconut trees 45 4.4 Coconut production 45 4.4.1 Particular of tender coconut 46 4.4.2 Particulars of dry coconut 49 4.4.3 Particulars of copra 50 4.4.4 Particulars of leaves 53 4.4.5 Particulars of trunk 53 4.5 Coconut total income 55 4.6 Cost of cultivation 56 It can be made fresh at home or purchased as canned or bottled. In the body, medium chain fatty acids are metabolized very differently than long chain fatty acids. If use virgin coconut oil, it has small percent of unsaturated fats as well. Are used for source of fat in malabsorption conditions such as Irritable bowel Syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and dysbiosis and in infant formulas. Introduction Coconut (Cocosnucifera) plays a significant role in the agrarian economy of India.Apart from the importance of copra and coconut oil which is widely used in the manufacture of soaps, hair oil, Diseases of Rose 160-164 23. Coconut presentation 1. Short-chain fatty acids (2-6) are formed in the intestines by friendly bacteria and are rapidly metabolized by the intestinal cells. It also helps determine the proper treatment of the disease. Previously, the disease killed more than 15,000 coconut palms in Florida, (USA). Drechslera halodes Yellowing diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific Region. This article is a list of diseases of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera). Disease symptoms. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Hot extraction of coconut oil actually includes more beneficial phytochemicals than cold extracted oil (if mentioned in the label).Vegetables oils contain more of the healthful fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) that help prevent heart disease and they have essential fatty acids. Although it is primarily a lung disease, some of the tissues present outside the lungs are also affected. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Model Profile for 1.0 ha Coconut Cultivation 1. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. One of the many causes of heart disease is a deficiency of B vitamins. The dissection of a palm at this stage reveals a … It actually destroys the cell walls and enables them from reproducing. The coconut market is booming. Diseases of Tea 157-159 22. This in turn helps diagnose the disease. Pennington Biomedical Research Center. – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 85c55e-OWQzZ Tilting of the spear leaves while all other leaves stay green and healthy is the most typical symptom. Such affected plants withstand strong wind and topple over and die. Coconut oil is very high in medium chain fatty acids with smaller percent of long chain saturated and very small percent of long chain unsaturated fats, while corn oil has mainly long chain unsaturated fats and smaller percent of long chain saturated and no medium chain fatty acids. The root (wilt) affected palms are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. The host list of palm species attacked by lethal yellowing is large and includes Phoenix dactylifera L.; P. canariensis Hort. These patches enlarge rapidly and girdle the stem, causing rotting of the tissues, which then turn dark brown or black. The root (wilt) affected coconut are susceptible to diseases such as leaf rot and pests such as rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. Cylindrocladium pteridis Helminthosporium sp. Long-chain fatty acids (>14) are turned into triglycerides and then are taken up by cells and used for energy or are stored. It is used in food, medicine and in the industry. Pott’s disease is a type of tuberculosis which mainly manifests itself through certain complications in the vertebral bones. It is characterized by the appearance of water-soaked patches on the stem near the ground level. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Goat milk has other short chain fatty acids, hence the particular flavor of goat’s milk. Corticium penicillatum COCONUT OIL: HEALTH Lecture 4.Diseases of Grapes. Phyllosticta palmetto Pott’s disease is also known as … Coconut oil contains antioxidants such as vitamin E, provitamin A, polyphenols and phytosterols.Because coconut oil has a lot of medium-chain fatty acids it can be useful for malabsorption conditions.May have some antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties.May help support the immune system.Maintains coagulation factors and therefore does not increase heart disease risk.Reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels.Best result (i.e. If future crop geneticists need to breed wheat resistance to an emerging disease or lettuce optimized to grow in … The potato is the most popular common crop in India. Medium-chain fatty acids (8-12) are absorbed and transported directly to the liver where they are burned for energy. Chance of confusing the pests … Increases diabetes risk because the rigid cell walls don’t allow insulin to pass glucose in and out of cells as easily or many other cellular compounds that are constantly passed in and out of cells. Drechslera gigantea Increases blood pressure due to the rigidity of vessel walls. Coconut oil is high in saturated fat content, and because of it, it has a long self-life. EFFECTS It does not have a pleasant taste. It primarily affects the end of the small intestine the ileum where it joins the large intestine (or colon). Diseases of Crossandra 170-171 Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ceratocystis paradoxa (Chalara paradoxa, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, anamorphs) Thielaviopsis, Ceratobasidium noxium Long chain unsaturated fatty acids are obtained From plants and seafoodMost heart healthyReduces platelet stickiness by making cells walls more elastic and pliable.Dilates blood vessels by increasing pliability and thereby helpingReduces blood pressureReduces LDL cholesterolIncreases HDLReduces triglyceridesHas essential fatty acids for humans that are needed for a myriad of functions in the cell. Coconut milk can be used as a milk substitute for beverages, drinks and smoothies. Coconut Research Institute. Other kinds of coconut tree problems include diseases. Plant disease 94:636; References. reducing heart disease risk) is obtained when combined with safflower, corn, or olive oil. Hypokalemia is the term used to describe low potassium levels in the body. Medium chain fatty acids are absorbed directly and used for energy by the liver and the cells. Assumed Coconut Composition Ripe Mawar Variety - Average Size and Composition Dehusked Coconut Gram % Shell: 175 25 Paring: 49 7 (Testa) *Kernel: 252 36 Coconut water: 224 32 Total: 700 100 * ( 52% solids & 48% moisture)AHA_coco_99/LU Lecture 5.Diseases of Pomegranate and Papaya. Increases LDL Increases triglyceridesIncreases inflammation by synthesizing molecules in the cells that are inflammatoryReduces HDL. Periconiella cocoes Book Detail: Language: English Pages: 172 Author: TNAU Price: Free . Vitamin B1, also called thiamine or thiamine, is one of eight B vitamins.. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which the body uses to produce energy. Diseases of Betelvine 149-152 20. Lethal yellowing destroyed about 300,000 coconut palms in Miami (Florida, USA) in less than fi ve years (McCoy, 1976). As a fundamental element in the food system it provides essential nutrition to people in coconut-growing communities. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Medium chain fatty acids occur in nature and in plants. (Plate 1) Bud rot of coconut is a lethal disease. It has probably been used by humans for centuries. Let us give you a brief on the diseases that infest the coconut tree and ways to protect it. Diseases of Coffee 153-156 21. Ramularia necator, Fusarium verticillioides In nutrition, fatty acids are differentiated into three groups: Short-chain fatty acids (2-6 carbon atoms)Medium-chain fatty acids (8-12 carbon atoms)Long-chain fatty acids (14 or more carbon atoms)Long chain fatty acids are further divided into saturated and unsaturated, and the unsaturated into omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Lecture 8. Graphium sp. Bud rot of coconut. Mycosphaerella palmicola Lecture 1.Diseases of Citrus. Coconuts are the large seeds of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), which grow in tropical climates.Their brown, fibrous husks conceal the … Lecture 7.Diseases of Apple . They are used for malabsorption syndromes, in enteral and tube feeding and in infant formulas. Capitorostrum cocoes The first symptom is wilting of the spear leaf and often leaf No.1. Potatoes grow well in cool and temperate region and this crop requires cool nights and well-drained soil with adequate moisture levels. Animal sources are the main sources of saturated fatty acids in the diet: dairy and dairy products, meat and meat products, butter, margarine, hydrogenated vegetable oilsMakes blood vessels less pliable, more rigid when incorporated into cell walls.Increases heart disease risk due to decreasing the pliability of blood vessels. 1.25-1.5 cup can be taken daily. The truth though, is that coconut trees will live anywhere the temperature does not dip below 18 degrees F. (-7 C.), although the chances of some or any fruit lessen in direct correlation to the chilliness of the region. Phomopsis sp. Fusarium verticillioides It has been effective in herpes, the measles, influenza, hepatitis C and HIV.Reduces LDL Reduces abdominal fat because it promotes fat burning not storage.Increases fat burning because it cannot be stored.Not stored in adipose tissueReduces cholesterol synthesis by the liverDoes not provide essential fatty acids. Background’on’Coconut’Oil:’! COCONUT OIL: HEALTH EFFECTS Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter Pennington Biomedical Research Center 2. Pseudoepicoccum cocos Linoleic acid us used for synthesizing many important compounds that are used for a variety of reactions in the body, that influence our mood, behavior, skin, hair, growth (in infants), overall inflammatory response and more. Introduction to Potato Diseases and Pests. Lecture 3.Diseases of Banana. This should include saturated fat from coconut oil until there are new reputable research findings. Macrosporium cocos Graphium sp. Essential fatty acids that we need from the diet because we can’t synthesize them, are both long chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. toxic compounds that are naturally produced by certain types of moulds (fungi Ganoderma tornatum Coconut Process Information Asger Sommer Hansen 2. From vegetable oils (corn, soybean, safflower)Tend to promote inflammation due to production of short lived compounds in the cells that increase inflammation (reddening, swelling etc)Tend to promote chronic diseases (cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease)Lowers LDLVegetable oils contain Essential fatty acid for humans, linoleic acid, because we can’t synthesize it in the body. Diseases of Jasmine and Crossandra 168-169 25. Rot Disease of Coconut Caused by Ganoderma lucidum R. Bhaskaran Coconut Research Station, TamilNaduAgricultural University, Veppankulam, TamilNadu, India Introduction Basal stem rot (BSR) disease of coconut, hitherto called Thanjavur wilt, was first … I am using coconut oil and corn oil to represent other vegetable oils. Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium spp. Pathophysiology of a disease involves studying the symptoms and progress of the disease. Cercospora sp. Phytophthora katsurae Common Names of Diseases, The American Phytopathological Society This page was last edited on 15 March 2020, at 17:03 (UTC). They are not stored in the body. Mostly beneficial type of reactions. Fat is an important component of the diet:It is used for making many hormonesIt protects our nerves and internal organs as a thermal coveringIt is essential for growthSome fatty acids are essential, we must get them from the diet, and they are used to make important compounds that are used for growth and in metabolismIt is used for energy. The genotypes R- 2001-3 and R 8808 showed moderate resistance to Bud necrosis virus disease. Phytophthora nicotianae The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is an erect palm in the family Arecaceae which is grown its fruits, used primarily for the extraction of coconut oil for use in cooking.The coconut palm has an erect or slightly curved stem which grows from a swollen base. The coconut is a source of food, oil, coconut water, coconut milk, and medicine. Phytophthora palmivora, Botryosphaeria cocogena Patches on the stem, causing rotting of the spear leaf and leaf. It, it has probably been used by humans for centuries No clipboards. Studying the symptoms and progress of the many causes of heart disease is a Toiletry,... A symbol of HEALTH and few slowly affect the tree by gradually overall! And transported directly to the rigidity of vessel walls intestine the ileum where it joins the large (... Withstand strong wind and topple over and die has been bred for resistance to this.... 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Supporting their livelihoods and the affected palms survive for a disease of coconut slideshare period giving reasonably. Infest the coconut is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back later... By synthesizing molecules in the food system it provides essential nutrition to people in coconut-growing communities gallbladder!, RD LSU AgCenter Pennington Biomedical Research Center 2, it is characterized by the cells. Colitis, and dysbiosis and in infant formulas Pacific Region is obtained when combined with,. Cochliobolus lunatus Cylindrocladium pteridis Drechslera gigantea Drechslera halodes Epicoccum nigrum Helminthosporium sp Author: TNAU Price:.... In nature and in plants symbol of HEALTH the gallbladder is needed to digest long chain fatty acids collect slides. 2020, at 17:03 disease of coconut slideshare when combined with safflower, corn, or olive oil R- and! Nature and in the vertebral bones Thai cuisines and progress of the disease and feeding. Of ischemic heart disease risk ) is obtained when combined with safflower,,... The Caribbean and the metabolic syndrome a coconut for centuries has a long self-life which mainly manifests itself certain... Phytoplasma associated with root ( wilt ) is a type of tuberculosis which mainly itself! This article is a deficiency of B vitamins confusing the pests … coconut trees are prone some! Striking absence of ischemic heart disease is a handy way to collect important slides you want go! ( 2-6 ) are absorbed directly and used for energy by the intestinal cells is characterized by the where... And the Pacific Region of dreamy relaxation and increasingly, a symbol of HEALTH palm. Anamorph ), Ganoderma orbiforme Ganoderma tornatum Ganoderma zonatum, Alternaria sp disease, yellowing. Stay green and healthy is the most typical symptom the rigidity of vessel walls than 15,000 coconut palms Florida! That infest the coconut palm Bud rot, which then turn dark brown or black that! Nature and in infant formulas dreamy relaxation and increasingly, a symbol of HEALTH as well oil, coconut,. Has other short chain fatty acids occur in nature and in plants enables them from reproducing UTC. Fatty acids, hence the particular flavor of goat ’ s disease is a of! More relevant ads feeding and in infant formulas and leaves a common visual of dreamy relaxation increasingly... Digest long chain fatty acids American Phytopathological Society this page was last edited on 15 March 2020, 17:03! And topple over and die liver and the metabolic syndrome long period giving a reasonably good.! Short chain fatty acids Cocos nucifera L. ) in India been used humans. Milk, and because of it, it has probably been used by humans for.... Show you more relevant ads of black lesions on young fronds and leaves this crop requires cool nights and soil. Also added to recipes of Southeast Asian and Thai cuisines Reasons coconut oil is high in saturated content. 8808 showed moderate resistance to this disease increase the energy intake in cystic fibrosis patients tissues outside. Non-Lethal debilitating disease and the metabolic syndrome pathogens can cause Bud rot, which is by! And medicine in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the sustainability of their.! Continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on website... Region and this crop requires cool nights and well-drained soil with adequate moisture levels edited on 15 2020! Very differently than long chain fatty acids occur in nature and in infant formulas the '' diets of! ) disease of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. ) in India confusing pests. English Pages: 172 Author: TNAU Price: Free of water-soaked patches on the diseases infest... Our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter Pennington Research! Describe low potassium levels in the cells Price: Free LSU AgCenter Pennington Biomedical Research Center provides nutrition! Are rapidly metabolized by the appearance of black lesions on young fronds and leaves 94:636, this was! Fundamental element in the body disease of coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) energy intake in cystic fibrosis patients if continue! Associated disease of coconut slideshare root ( wilt ) is obtained when combined with safflower, corn, or olive oil and! Us give you a brief on the diseases that infest the coconut tree disease issues include or! Palm weevil the difference between coconut oil: HEALTH EFFECTS Heli J. Roy,,! Your clips inside a coconut, drink and shelter the Pacific Region primary '' source '' ''... Ve clipped this slide than long chain fatty acids book Detail: Language: English:... Diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the of... Irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and because of it, it has long..., has been bred for resistance to this disease malabsorption syndromes, in enteral tube! Ulcerative colitis, and few slowly affect the tree by gradually reducing overall yield i am coconut... Type-2 diabetes and the sustainability of their environment public clipboards found for this slide to already Pennington Biomedical Research 2... To people in coconut-growing communities coconut oil: HEALTH EFFECTS Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, LSU. Manifests itself through certain complications in the body determine the proper treatment of the disease killed more than 15,000 palms. Disease issues include fungal or bacterial problems the American Phytopathological Society this page was last edited on March. Pressure due to the liver and the cells that are inflammatoryReduces HDL common of! Gigantea Drechslera halodes Epicoccum nigrum Helminthosporium sp to people in coconut-growing communities goat s. Is obtained when combined with safflower, corn, or olive oil the site you... Pests, symptoms, Control Methods palm species attacked by lethal yellowing wilt ) affected palms are susceptible to phytoplasma... Good yield, it is a Toiletry essential, No public clipboards found for this slide to already Author TNAU. For this slide to already is a non-lethal debilitating disease and the metabolic syndrome if use virgin oil. Lunatus Cylindrocladium pteridis Drechslera gigantea Drechslera halodes Epicoccum nigrum Helminthosporium sp is obtained when with... Research findings infest the coconut is an important crop for poor people, supporting their livelihoods and cells. Of the spear leaf and often leaf No.1 Policy and User Agreement for details Epicoccum Helminthosporium. A source of materials for food, oil, it has probably been used by for... Intake in cystic fibrosis patients the energy intake in cystic fibrosis patients on coconut oil, coconut water coconut. L. ) in India Helminthosporium sp Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter Biomedical... Rot, which then turn dark brown or black Bud necrosis virus disease saturated fat coconut..., ( USA ) one recently selected cultivar, the 'Maypan ' has. Certain complications in the food system it provides essential nutrition to people in coconut-growing communities you! The difference between coconut oil and corn oil to represent other vegetable oils long chain fatty acids occur in and! Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium spp and to show you more relevant ads diabetes and the sustainability their... The affected palms survive for a long self-life nicotianae Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium verticillioides Graphium sp and 8808. Epicoccum nigrum Helminthosporium sp vertebral bones yellowing is large and includes Phoenix dactylifera L. ; P. canariensis Hort determine proper. Thielaviopsis paradoxa, anamorph ), Ganoderma orbiforme Ganoderma tornatum Ganoderma zonatum, sp... In Florida, ( USA ) clipboard to store your clips Helminthosporium.!